n.b. these are just 1-sentence summaries. For caveats, details, and subtleties, please read the papers!

Boosting gamma oscillations can fix cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia (in mice).  Cho et al., Neuron 2015.

Long-range gamma synchrony is necessary for learning (specifically behavioral reappraisal).  Cho et al., Nat Neurosci 2020.

An amygdala-hippocampus network in the human brain encodes real-time changes in mood.  Kirkby et al., Cell 2018.

Dopamine does completely different things in prefrontal cortex than in striatum.  Robinson and Sohal, J Neurosci 2017.  Ellwood, Patel, Wadia et al., J Neurosci 2017.

Interneurons can change their stripes (i.e. SST cells can reversibly adopt PV-like properties).  Malik et al., Nat Comm 2019.

The outputs of prefrontal interneurons can do things we didn’t think were possible (differentiate between pyramidal neurons based on their projection targets and inhibit far-off targets).  Lee et al., J Neurosci 2014.  Lee, Gee et al., Neuron 2014.

Very different causes of autism converge on similar changes in prefrontal circuits.  Brumback, Ellwood, Hansen et al., Mol Psych 2018.  Luongo et al., Biol Psych 2016.

Transplanting interneuron stem cells can rescue social deficits caused by disruptions in an autism gene.  Southwell et al., J Neurosci 2020.

VIP interneurons and serotonin gate the flow of anxiety signals into prefrontal cortex.  Lee et al., Neuron 2019.  Kjaerby et al., Cell Reports 2016.

VIP interneurons are also good targets for seizure control.  Khoshkhoo et al., Neuron 2017

The Anterior Cingulate Cortex contains two distinct subcircuits that have opposing effects on the affective components of chronic pain.  Meda et al., Neuron 2019.

Even isolated cortical microcircuits can generate complex patterns of activity like sequences that are observed in behaving animals.  Luongo et al., J Neurophys 2016.